Published Papers

White Papers

Open Identity Exchange (OIX) White Papers focus on hot issues and opportunities in emerging identity markets. OIX white papers are driven by the needs of the members but the goal of each white paper is that they stand on their own to deliver value to the identity ecosystem as whole.

OIX White Papers are always pragmatic, transparent and take one of two perspectives: a retrospective report on the outcome of a given project or pilot or a prospective discussion on a current issue or opportunity.

OIX White Papers are made freely available on the OIX website and are intended as summaries for a general business audience.

Read more, global OIX White Papers on the Open Identity Exchange global website.

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Use of Online Activity Use of online activity as part of the identity verification

Government identity verification standards require tests against the ‘activity history’ of an identity. These tests complement more traditional ‘static’ tests, such as document checking, and show that transactions have been conducted by the identity over a period of time.

Many online networks do not require user accounts to be created with ‘real’ identity details that might be used when opening a bank account or interacting with government services. However, they do provide a potentially powerful source of data for identity assurance purposes:

The government’s standards for identity verification are technical. In this project Veridu worked with Cabinet Office and GOV.UK Verify certified companies (also known as Identity Providers) to understand how users might leverage their social networks, and other types of online accounts, as trustworthy evidence when creating a digital identity that meets government standards with a certified company.

It is anticipated that this collaborative OIX project will lead to the development of a commercial beta service.

Published: July 2016

Author: Harry Weber-Brown

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Private Sector UK Private Sector Needs for Identity Assurance

The UK economy has a fragmented approach to online identity, with many different regulations, requirements and methods. This makes the experience for users complex and users have very little control over how their personal data and identity is managed. For organisations it means they often try to solve the issue of online identity in their own industry sector, but fraud levels are still rising and there are segments of the population that cannot be verified online, creating operational inefficiencies and increasing cost.

This challenge is shared by organisations in both the public and private sector, therefore in order to progress this critical topic, the Open Identity Exchange has run two discovery projects to look at UK Identity Assurance needs to understand if there is an appetite for collaboration across private and public sector to solve the issue of online identity in the UK.

This document reports in the second phase which was much wider reaching than the first, and included feedback from 80 organisations. Questions were asked generally about the market, and specifically about standards, certification, privacy and brand, as well as understanding the appetite to work collaboratively to solve some of the issues around identity.

These questions were asked to understand the potential reuse of GOV.UK Verify as there are a range of options about which part/s could be make available to the private sector. The survey was designed to understand the private sector’s view on the value of each of those as well as their views on the market generally.

Published: June 2016

Editor: Innovate Identity

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peer to peer Use of Digital Identity in Peer-to-Peer Economy

In the peer-to-peer economy it is the borrower or lender of the asset in whom the other party must have trust and not an intermediary organisation. This OIX project looked at the extent to which identity verification of the counterparties, to a government agreed standard, would enhance user confidence and encourage people to conduct peer-to-peer transactions. It recognised that:

  • users may want to use a pseudonym in place of the normally used name in a transaction but would trust the website to have verified the real identity
  • most peer-to-peer websites already conduct some form of identity verification for users registering for their service and have peer review systems that enable users to build a reputation.

A fictional car journey sharing transaction was used to conduct the research. Car sharing is very personal and accentuates some of the characteristics that are critical for trust. The project was conducted as part of the investigation of how high assurance digital identities created through the UK government’s scheme, GOV.UK Verify, might be used in private sector transactions.

Published: June 2016

Editor: Livia Ralph, GDS

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Shared Signals Shared Signals Proof of Concept

In 2013, OIX published a White Paper The Shared Signals Model which identified the challenge of systemic and contagious fraud risk across the digital ecosystem caused by compromised identities; and proposed an approach to addressing this problem by sharing authoritative, privacy-protecting alerts, or ‘Signals’ between service providers to help identify risks and so apply earlier protection or other remediation.

A subsequent OIX UK discovery project established the potential to use such a shared signals mechanism to increase shared trust in the Identity Ecosystem – Protecting the Identity Ecosystem. This was followed by a specific OIX UK discovery project with the GOV.UK Verify high-assurance Identity Providers (“IdPs”) which identified a clear set of potential use-cases for such a system Shared Signals IDP to IDP; and recommended progression to an OIX UK Alpha project to test these hypotheses in a more practical application. This Alpha project tested whether Signals (which adhere to the principle of minimal personal data sharing) can be shared between IdPs, via a ‘signal manager’, that IdPs have sufficient trust in, and are of sufficient quality to match and take action on.

Published: June 2016

Authors: Andi Hindle, Hindle Consulting and Emma Lindley, Innovate Identity

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Creating a Digital Identity in Jersey

States of Jersey is embarking on an eGoverment programme to improve customer service and make government a more efficient and ‘joined-up’ business. Across the world countries are developing national digital identity schemes, all vary in their nature. This discovery project explored the knowledge, expertise and components of one of these models, the UK’s GOV.UK Verify identity scheme, considering if it could be leveraged to provide a cost-effective solution to meet Jersey’s requirements.

Published: June 2016

Editor: Rob Laurence, Innovate Identity

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Just Giving Just Giving and GOV.UK Verify

JustGiving is a tech-for-good company that facilitates donations and fundraising for charities. In 2001, JustGiving launched as the first UK online fundraising platform and has grown to include a database of users which covers 89% of UK postcodes. This translates to over 6 million active users in the last 12 months (2015). Each user that transacts has achieved a certain standard of verification, with a proportion achieving a greater degree of verification.

As JustGiving continues to expand and offer new and innovative services in online and mobile fundraising, they are active in exploring new models of online identification. They are conscious of the need to maintain trust for both their donors and the fundraising community, particularly in regards to crowdfunding.

This OIX UK Discovery project looked to explore a potential relationship between JustGiving and GOV.UK Verify and how JustGiving users responded to that relationship where their information was concerned.

Published: May 2016

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TISA User Research TISA User Research Report

This User Research Executive Summary should be read with the
OIX White Paper: Could Identities help Transform Consumers Attitudes and Behaviour Towards Savings

Published: May 2016

Pensions Alpha Creating A Pensions Dashboard

“HMT should challenge the industry to make a pensions dashboard available to consumers by 2019, bringing together industry and consumer representatives to help them set direction and drive progress.” HMT and FCA, 2016.

Pensions provision is changing and individuals must increasingly take more responsibility for planning their financial well-being in retirement. Engagement with financial services is increasingly digital in nature with more services being accessed online, so delivering a pensions dashboard with the interest of the consumer first and foremost represents an opportunity to transform the relationships people have with their pensions savings.

This Alpha project followed an earlier discovery project, the Pension Finder Tool. Fourteen organisations representing the views of the consumer, the financial services industry and the government, took part and concentrated on aggregating a comprehensive picture of people’s accumulated pension savings including defined-benefit pension and defined-contribution pensions alongside the State Pension, looking at consumer journeys, consumer research, architecture and data standards, and policy and governance.

Editor: Jackie Spencer, Money Advice Service

Published: May 2016

Accompanying Presentation

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TISA Could Digital Identities help Transform Consumers Attitudes and Behaviour Towards Savings?

This paper, sponsored by the Tax Incentivised Savings Association (TISA), reports the findings of an OIX Discovery Project to explore the use of a digital identity scheme in the savings sector. The project principally explored users’ perceptions and expectations about digital identities and whether they could be used to enable greater consumer awareness and change behaviour towards saving. The project team also considered whether a digital identity scheme in a wider context could lead to savings in identity assurance and regulatory compliance checks and underpin the transformation of business processes.

Author: Rob Laurence, Innovate Identity

Published: May 2016

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You may be interested to read the TISA User Research Executive Summary with this white paper.

AmsRept Identity Law and Policy Workshop, Amsterdam

The Open Identity Exchange organised and facilitated a legal and policy workshop on March 24, 2016 in Amsterdam, with the objective of advancing the discussion of the key issues surrounding the adoption of identity management legislation and in particular eIDAS. The workshop was co-sponsored by Verizon, Platform Identity Management Nederland (PIMN), and Digidentity BV, and was hosted by Verizon. The goal of that meeting was to discuss the direction that planned or proposed projects to develop new identity management legislation should take, the issues it should address and the desired approaches. This Report summarises at a high-level the robust, thought-provoking and productive discussion in which the participants engaged.

Editor: Sue Dawes

Published: April 2016

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Digital Identity Across Borders Digital Identity Across Borders: Opening a Bank Account in Another EU Country

Customers of Norwegian banks have a very simple experience for opening a bank account. A customer can use a ‘Bank ID’ digital identity issued by one Norwegian bank to open orlogin to a bank account with any other Norwegian bank. They can also use it to access public services. When Norwegian move overseas for work or education they expect opening a bank account to be almost as easy as it is at home. This is not the case. This project paper looks at the journey of opening a current account in the UK and reflects on how new UK and EU Initiatives on digital identity might create a simpler life for the customer and reduce the overheads for the banks.

Editor: Livia Ralph

Published: February 2016

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LawPolicy International Identity Law and Policy Workshop

The Open Identity Exchange, along with the American Bar Association’s Identity Management Legal Task Force and The World Bank, hosted a legal and policy workshop on January 14, 2016 in Washington D.C. with the objective of discussing the main issues surrounding the adoption of identity management legislation. The goal of the meeting was to discuss the direction that such new identity management legislation should take, the issues it should address, and desired approaches. This Report summarises at a high-level the robust, thought-provoking and productive discussion in which the participants engaged.

Editor: Tom Smedinghoff

Published: January 2016

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trust-thumb Rebranding the Web of Trust

Rebooting the Web of Trust is a cooperative of tech visionaries experienced with security, privacy, and identity. Its goal is to imagine and implement the future of decentralized trust on the internet. The first 40 members of the group came together at a design workshop held in San Francisco, California on November 3rd and November 4th, 2015 that was sponsored by the Open Identity Exchange, Respect Network and PricewaterhouseCoopers.

The Web of Trust. It’s the buzzword for a new model of decentralized identity. However, it’s also a phrase that dates back almost twenty-five years and has been heavily overloaded with meaning during that time. The classic definition of Web of Trust derives from PGP, but the top Google results refer to a website reputation rating system created by a Finnish internet company. Meanwhile, some use it as a big tent that includes identity authentication & verification, certificate validation, and reputation assessment, while the vibrant blockchain community is also drawing new attention to the classic concept.

To build a contemporary Web of Trust, we need to better define it. To do so, we must both understand what the classic Web of Trust was and create a model for the elements of trust that are contained within a more modern definition thus the “Rebranding of Trust” white paper.

Published: December 2015

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The Value of OIXnet: A New Registry for Online Trust

Today as never before, we have access to a wealth of digital attributes and sensor data that we control. What is missing, however, is the ability to easily manage these diverse silos of data. Identity and service providers could create higher-value content for business applications by aggregating these data in machine- or human-readable form. The OIXnet Registry is an early step in producing a registry service, a public database for Identity Providers (IdPs) to be registered, published and searched, and where they can make known to users the characteristics of the attributes they manage. It is then at the discretion of the identity owners to aggregate or disaggregate their personal data.

Author: Hal Warren

Setting a Comfort Zone For Privacy in the Internet of Things: The Smart Thermostat Use Case
This paper explores smart thermostats as an instance of the Internet of Things (IoT), a system of connecting once-isolated things, with a focus on how IoT can offer new benefits to individuals. The focus on individual benefits of IoT is prompted by recognition that the perception and reality of such benefits to individuals (acting in both institutional and non-institutional settings) is foundational to successful adoption of new technology, particularly in consumer-facing deployments of IoT.

Author: Scott L. David

DIAB User Res

Digital Identity Across Borders: Doing Financial Transactions in another EU Country: User Research Report
Within the scope of the ‘Opening a UK Bank Account with a Norwegian BankID project, a user journey was tested of a Norwegian individual opening a UK bank account online with Barclays Bank, prior to coming to the UK, using their Norwegian e-identiy – BankID. This report details the findings of this User Research.Author: Raj Verdi

Published: November 2015

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Assisted Digital Walk-In Assisted Digital

This project tested the following hypothesis: ‘Walk-in Assisted Digital support will be effective for some users, at least for some services, and feasible for some suppliers to provide.’ This was explored by recruiting people with low online skills and/or online access barriers to come and receive help in store from Timpson’s Group colleagues, for a selected online government service at a time convenient to them, across a period of two days. Support was provided to the recruited participants in an existing Max Spielmann Photo Store and in a purpose-built concept identity shop called ArkHive. This White Paper reports on findings drawn from observations, participant interviews and workshops on the experiences of both receiving and providing support in this context to explore if the hypothesis is correct.

Editor: Sarah Walton

Published: December 2015

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Test Inf Accelerating the UK Digital Services Market

In order to support the anticipated growth of the UK services over the next 5 years, this emerging open market of high-quality identity services will extend interoperability of systems, and further develop trust and transparency between services and their users. Open standards and processes governing the permissible reuse of identity services across the public and private sectors will be crucial to this effort. This white paper explores a significant opportunity that can help accelerate delivery of services: the provision of an independent, reliable and agile repository of digital identity standards and services. As a mechanism to accelerate the provision of this infrastructure of services, an incremental extension of the current OIX ruleset and processes is proposed which would provide a public, trusted registry of services and self-certification process.

Author: Andrew Hindle, Hindle Consulting

Published: November 2015

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IWG The Industry Working Group on Attribute Exchange

This Industry Working Group (the IWG), was established by OIX with an initial brief to shadow, review and potentially influence the work of the OIX Warwickshire County Council led Alpha project on attribute exchange, taking the Blue Badge application process as the use case. This brief was extended to include the NHS England Citizen Identity Alpha project and both of these reviews are included in this report.

Author: Rob Laurence, Innovate Identity

Published: October 2015

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DIPSS Digital ID Photo Sending Service

As more processes move online, the requirement for identity assurance becomes more complex. In the UK the government has stated that digital identity is a core enabler of their digital transformation by creating trusted transactions to allow people to move online safely and securely.

The Digital ID Photo Sending Service (“DIPSS”) project focused on one of the critical components of identity; a photograph. This component supports the identity ecosystem by providing an additional element, delivered in a digital way to enable the individual to assert their identity. The photograph is a key identity element and forms an important part of numerous identity processes, and user access globally. For example, the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) in the UK alone processes more than 3.5 million photographs per annum for new driving licence applications and renewals.

This project demonstrated that users preferred the process of using a digital photograph in an online process to the existing paper based one. Choice was important to users, as was the convenience around the location and the privacy of the environment it was taken in.

Author: Emma Lindley, Innovate Identity

Published: September 2015

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WCC2 Alpha Discovering the Needs for UK Identity Assurance

In order to understand the overall UK market meeds better, OIX has been asked by its members to run a discovery exercise during 2015 to understand what the private sector needs are for digital identity services, how these relate to central government needs and what questions would arise when considering the potential development of sector-based and cross-sector approaches to identity assurance.
This white paper reports on the initial phase to this work in May 2015 led by OIX and facilitated by KPMG, a workshop that took place with senior representatives of some of the UK’s biggest organisations from a wide cross section of industries. It also sets out a scope and structure for how this work will be expanded beyond those organisations that were represented in May, to understand the wider identity needs across the UK. Industry participation in this project is encouraged, and details of how to engage in this process can be found in the conclusions section of this document.

Author: Emma Lindley, Innovate Identity

Published: September 2015

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WCC2 Alpha Towards an Architecture for a Digital Blue Badge ServiceThis Alpha project took a typical local government service – applying for a Blue Badge (disabled parking badge) – and demonstrated how it could be radically transformed from a process taking several weeks to one taking a few minutes. Warwickshire County Council, Department for Work and Pensions, Mydex, Verizon, Northgate Public Services and Government Digital Services collaborated on this project.

Authors: Rob Laurence, Innovate Identity and Ian Litton, Warwickshire County Council

Published: August 2015

WCC2 Alpha A Technical Design for a Blue Badge Digital ServiceThis technical paper should be read in conjunction with the white paper: Towards an Architecture for a Digital Blue Badge Service. A collaboration between Government Digital Services, Department for Work and Pensions, Warwickshire County Council, Mydex and Verizon to design an attribute exchange hub, this paper describes the technical solution design and build.

Authors: Steve Gevers, Verizon and Rob Laurence, Innovate Identity

Published: August 2015

bank Data The Use of Bank Data for Identity Verification

This discovery project has hypothesised a model by which bank data could be shared more directly and efficiently to GOV.UK Verify certified companies and others in the identity services market. The project has approached the challenge with the assumption that such a service must be beneficial for all parties, and in particular, commercially viable for the banks. There must be clear value to citizens, and a clear defined privacy approach that is acceptable to the stakeholders.

This white paper articulates the benefits of consented reuse of bank data through an industry wide open standard, to improve the efficacy of identity verification of individuals in the UK.

Editor: Livia Ralph
Published: August 2015

Shared Signals IDP Shared Signals IDP to IDP – Reducing Fraud and Improving Online Safety Through IdP Signal Sharing
This project explored the hypothesis: ‘It is possible to share signals between IdPs whilst minimising disclosure of personal data [3] to better prevent fraud.’ These signals relate to events or circumstances that are detected at one IdP, which can be sent or signalled to other IdPs to, for example, further prevent fraud or account takeover. The project tested the hypothesis by running five expert sessions with IdP’s and ‘product experts’.[3] See white paper for definitionEditor: Sarah Walton
Published: August 2015
Pensions wp The Pensions Finder Tool

This project looked at how digital identity can solve a real world problem. By the time the average person retires they will have contributed to about 11 different private pensions . In some cases the pension provider and customer may have lost contact with one another. The customer may have moved house or the pension provider may have been acquired by another organisation. Current government projections suggest there will be 50 million dormant workplace defined contribution pension pots by 2050, 12 million of which will be under £2,000 in value. Reuniting owners with their savings requires assurance that the claimant has the correct identity and entitlement to the relevant benefits.

The project designed and developed a Pensions Finder prototype to examine the hypothesis: ‘Consumers will take action and make informed choices when they are provided with information and data about their pension savings & investments and the associated retirement benefits or income in later life through a secure, easy to use digital service.’

Editor: Stephen Ashurst
Published: June 2015

Digital Sources of Trust Digital Sources of Trust 1 & 2
The ‘Digital Sources of Trust’ (DSOT) discovery projects have investigated the challenges of identity verification for users that do not possess traditional identity credentials such as a passport or driving licence. The majority of the users interviewed in these projects expressed a need for a process where verification of their identity would be made easier. At present they face numerous barriers (and additional, often crippling costs) or lengthy processes to verify their identity, even for simple things such as application for a course. Most of these people have evidence of long customer histories with public and private sector service providers but the evidence is largely paper based and therefore of no use in a digital transaction.
The DSOT 1 & 2 projects looked at user journeys that explored three mechanisms; a ‘digital notary’, a direct attribute provision service and a Personal Data Store (PDS).
Editor: Livia Ralph
Published: June 2015
Existence Check Overseas Pensions Discovery Project
The project looks at the Global Existence Transaction (“Existence”) service, developed by Western Union to tackle overseas pension fraud, and how this service could be potentially leveraged by the Identity Assurance Programme.
The Global Existence Transaction service helps reduce fraud by providing a process for verifying the existence of legitimate pension beneficiaries. This involves the pensioner presenting him or herself at a Western Union Agent location with the appropriate identification documents to collect a funds transfer sent by the pension provider. By presenting their identification to collect their funds, the pension provider has confirmation of their beneficiary’s existence.
This paper explores how such a service could be leveraged as a capability of the Identity Assurance Programme to: a)Allow an Existence enabled digital identity to be federated across multiple pension providers; b) Provide an additional identity proofing capability to identity providers.
Author:Fola Ogunsola & Steve Pannifer, Consult Hyperion
Published: February 2015
27 Nov - Project Scope V1 1 clean
The Opportunity of Attribute Exchange
This paper is for organisations that want to understand how the exchange of verified personal data can enable the delivery of innovative customer centric online services, whilst simultaneously reducing costs. It explains how Mydex CIC provides a Trust Framework and Platform – a unique, safe and secure mechanism for the sharing of verified data between connecting organisations and individuals’ Personal Data Stores.

By enabling verified attributes to be shared within a trusted framework, customer journeys can be streamlined, interactions improved, processes simplified and the risks related to data sharing reduced.

Published: February 2015


Research Report for Digital Sources of Trust 2

The Digital Sources of Trust 2 (DSOT 2) Discovery Project looked to understand how documents produced by Issuing Authorities (IAs) such as colleges, could be used as part of a validation process by Identity providers (IdPs). In particular, it tested the user journey with the use of a technology that could validate the authenticity of a paper document and the data in the document (e.g. name, address,course) for a ‘thin file’ demographic.

Author: James Boardwell, Rattle

Published: December 2014

Shared Signalswp Shared Signals – Protecting the Identity Ecosystem
This paper gives an overview of an Open Identity Exchange UK discovery project run to explore the potential for a “Shared Signals” model (the exchange of “trust” and metadata, rather than personal data) to increase shared trust in the Identity Ecosystem between Identity Providers (IdPs), Email Providers (EPs) and Service Providers (SPs).Author: Andrew Nash, Confyrm Inc.
Published: November 2014
arpu Generating Revenue and Subscriber Benefits – An Analysis of: The ARPU of Identity
This white paper analyses the “ARPU”, Average Revenue Per User, that is the telco industry’s favourite four letter word. ARPU is a measure of monthly revenue divided by the total number of end-user customers. In this white paper we will review how and why telcos can and should play a stronger role in the identity industry. We will also provide a financial model for how various aspects of identity management can contribute to ARPU. Additionally, we will highlight some of the challenges facing the identity industry as a whole and some of the issues telcos will have to face as they navigate their way through the identity ecosystem.Author: Scott G R Rice, PacificEast
Published: October 2014
Download the ARPU-I Worksheet
Trustmark Trustmarks in the Identity Ecosystem: Definition, Use and Governance
As the identity ecosystem evolves and grows, discussions of trust marks are becoming more frequent. Trustmarks, privacy seals, certification marks and heir like are a common feature of the online landscape. This paper draws together a broad range of ideas and contexts for trust mark usage so a to distill a set of terms, concepts and considerations that are most useful to the identity management community.Author: Dr Gilad L. Rosner
Published: September 2014
Lloyds Callsign picture Lloyds with Callsign: Associating a bank with issuing an identity assurance credential that allows access to Government services
Banks have long been the holders and guardians of personal information relating to their millions of customers such as name, address, phone numbers, financial history, etc. Moreover they go through rigorous verification processes to ensure this information is accurate and that their customers are who they say they are. As digitisation of daily life continues to develop at a pace, including the growth of mobile banking, it seems natural for banks to examine ways in which they can help their customers to access a range of services in a way that is safe, secure and convenient for the individual, and provides accurate and trustworthy identity data for the relying party.Authors: Cassie Robinson and Helen Wall
Published: September 2014
DataMatching Matching Service: Data Matching in the Identity Ecosystem
Adoption of an external digital identity asserted by the users Identity Provider requires the organisation to ‘match’ the identity details to customer records within its own systems. This paper has been written as phase one of a discovery project into the matching service element of the identity ecosystem. It explains why it is required, what is already being done by organisations in the area of matching and, of that, what could potentially be reused. Additionally it explains the current challenges faced by organisations such as the service providers and attribute providers who will need to implement data matching in order to adopt and maximise the benefits of identity assurance.Authors: Emma Lindley, Innovate Identity
Published: September 2014
DataMatching Warwickshire (2): Can attribute provision, together with identity assurance, transform local government Services?
Identity assurance is key if we are to enable the digital by default strategy. It provides a means of common access to services across central and local government. But the bigger opportunity arises when we can access and use data. We call this “attribute provision”. This is when it becomes possible to transform services. This white paper reports on the learnings of the Warwickshire County Council Discovery Project that considered how attribute provision can be enabled through the identity assurance infrastructure. This is a practical way to achieve what has long been talked about, a digital infrastructure that enables data to flow freely, cheaply, securely and with the permission of the service user, to underpin the delivery of services online.Authors: Ian Litton, Warwickshire County Council and Rob Laurence, Innovate Identity
Published: September 2014
Slide1 Economics of Identity
Individuals and businesses are moving rapidly to a digital and mobile way of doing business with each other. The more we interact and transact online, the more important online identity becomes. Without it the growth of online commerce – and therefore the economy as a whole – will be constrained. This white paper examines the size and potential of the UK market for identity assurance.Authors: Alan Mitchell & Jamie Smith, Ctrl-Shift
Published: June 2014
Slide1 xMNO project: Exploring the Role of Mobile in Digital Identity Assurance
This white paper summarises the outcomes from the UK’s first mobile network operator alpha trial. Mobile phones are increasingly becoming the device of choice for digital transactions and the Cabinet Office wanted to understand the role mobile network operators might play in establishing trust in such digital transactions.Author: Nick Foggin, Independent Consultantbutton_video
Published: June 2014
Slide1 South Yorkshire (2): Challenges in Digital Identity
Digital “inclusion” and “uptake” are two of the most interesting, and possibly biggest challenges in the adoption of a ubiquitous digital identity. Are critical questions in this context are: How do we increase the amount of people that can gain acceptance and access to a digital identity, even in the most difficult to reach demographics in the UK? Secondly how do we ensure they understand and want to use this identity across more than service, gaining maximum benefit for all? This small scale project focuses on these two challenges.Authors: Emma Lindley, Innovate Identity and Gary Simpson, South Yorkshire Credit Union
Published: March 2014

vocab The Vocabulary of Identity Systems Liability

Fear of liability is one of the most significant impediments to participation in the emerging identity market. Yet the term “liability” is often misapplied, and the risk of liability is often misunderstood. This OIX White Paper Series is designed to demystify liability, and assist in liability risk analysis. As the first step in that process, this paper seeks to explain the concept of liability, and to develop a common understanding of what it means for participants in an identity system to incur liability. The goal is to introduce identity system experts to the fundamentals of legal liability, while introducing the context of a federated identity system to legal counsel.

Authors: Thomas J. Smedinghoff, Mark Deem, and Sam Eckland

axn Attribute Exchange Networks: New Infrastructure for Digital Business

This white paper compliments the OIX Attribute Exchange (AXN) Trust Framework Specification that was completed and accepted in July 2013. The AXN Specification is a comprehensive master plan for implementing identity as a service infrastructure for the real time sharing of precise authority information across all digital business settings. This white paper summarizes the findings of the AXN Specification by providing a consolidated approach to creating and deploying an AXN with considerations such as monetization models.

publish_trust The Publish Trust Framework Registration on OIXnet: Building a Trust Measure for Attribute Exchange

This white paper illustrates the benefits of a Linked Data approach to entity registration in OIXnet and presents the
Publish Trust Framework
(PTF) pilot developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) to enable secure exchange, aggregation and validation of scholarly identity attributes and facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration in scientific communities. The APA pilot uses Semantic Web technologies, recently named by Gartner as one of the top ten strategic and disruptive trends for the near future, to leverage “OIXnet trusted” registration, develop reliable mechanisms for verifying scholarly identity, and backing authorship claims. The APA Trust Factor is computed on a core set of machine, environment, human and attribute variables and integrates data from attribute providers into a single score.

Authors: Jennifer Golbeck, Gary VandenBos, Hal Warren, Eva Winer, Bryan Dennis, and Debra Diener

Internet-Life-Verification-_ILV_- Internet Life Verification (ILV): Social Login, Data and Digital Identity
This white paper summarises the findings from an investigative project on the subject of internet life verification (ILV), the process by which an individual’s identity can be verified through analysis of their online activity taken from social networks.Authors: Nicola Turnill and Emma Partridge, Blue Marble Research
Published: September 2013
South-Yorkshire-Project-Report-Phase-1 South Yorkshire (1): Bridging the “Digital Divide”
This project looks at the challenges with one of the hardest demographics to address, those who potentially do not have traditional forms of identity documentation (e.g. passports and driving licences) or digital footprints (e.g. bank accounts or electronic records on the credit referencing data) and therefore find it harder to gain access to transcations which require a higher level of identity verification or access methods of electronic payment. This small-scale test was developed in the context of how we might address the “digital divide”.Author: Gary Simpson
Published: July 2013
The-Shared-Signals-Model-1 Shared Signals
Fraudulent takeover of Consumer accounts and subsequent misuse is a significant problem that occurs daily at Identity Providers. The Shared Signals model describes a new collaborative system that enables intelligence sharing between Account Managers (e.g. Identity Providers) to reduce the impact of fraud and account theft on Identity Providers and consumers. While the immediate value of Shared Signaling is described here in the context of online Identity Providers, the model translates to any system of Account Managers, and could be utilized directly by mobile operators.Author: Andrew Nash, Confyrm Inc
Published: October 2013
Warwickshire-County-Council-Project Warwickshire (1): Single Identity for Central and Local Government
Over the past few years a diverse range of solutions to identity assurance have been implemented by local authorities. The purpose of this project is to examine how one such local authority’s identity assurance scheme could coexist and interoperate with the UK Government’s Identity Assurance (IDA) Scheme for central government services, potentially leading to a single, standards-based approach to identity assurance across all public services to the citizen.Authors: Rob Laurence, Innovate Identity and Ian Litton, Strategy, Programme and Information Manager, Warwickshire County Council
Published: October 2013
Warwickshire-County-Council-Technical-Findings- Warwickshire (1): Single Identity for Central and Local Government – Technical Findings
This report accompanies the project White Paper. It explains in detail the technologies that were implemented by the Service Provider, Warwickshire County Council, within the scope of the project.Authors: Graham Dunnings and Ian Litton, Strategy, Programme and Information Manager, Warwickshire County Council
Published: October 2013
open_mkt OIX: An Open Market Solution for Online Identity Assurance

This white paper introduces OIX as a solution for Internet-scale identity assurance. It starts by summarizing the underlying Open Identity Trust Framework model on which OIX is based. It then covers the structure and operation of OIX itself, and how members qualify for certification listings for specific trust frameworks at specific levels of assurance and protection. It provides several example OIX trust frameworks both in operation and development, and concludes by examining how OIX is designed to produce a “race to the top” in online identity policy standards.

Authors:Don Thibeau, OpenID Foundation,Tony Nadalin & Mary Rundle, Microsoft,Drummond Reed, Information Cards,Eve Maler, PayPal

The Personal Network: A New Trust Model and Business Model for Personal Data

The explosive growth of social networks has created an entire social layer for the Internet, changing its very role in society. This white paper explores the emergence of the next layer: the personal network. It explains the legal and economic reasons personal networks differ from social networks and introduces the Respect Trust Framework, the first trust framework designed expressly for personal data.

Authors: Drummond Reed & Joe Johnston, Connect.Me; Scott David, K&L Gates

 Personal Levels of Assurance (PLOA)

This AT&T white paper deals with innovation in the area of Identity and Federation.

Author: J. Oliver Glasgow

 The Three Pillars of Trust

This white paper, written by Booz Allen Hamilton, examines trust issues in government adoption of a new digital service architecture for trusted transactions with Government on the Internet.

Author: Booz Allen Hamilton

 Comments on U.S. NSTIC Steering Group Draft Charter and Related Governance Issues

This report has been prepared by the Open Identity Exchange (OIX) Advisory Board in response to a request from OIX Chair Don Thibeau for an initial review of the proposed NSTIC Steering Group from a “governance” perspective, to identify possible issues, challenges, structures, and solutions along the path forward as it is currently contemplated.

Authors:OIX Board of Advisors

 OIX Response to “Models for a Governance Structure for the National Strategy for Trusted Identity in Cyberspace”

This document sets forth the response of the Open Identity Exchange (“OIX”) to the Notice of Inquiry (“NOI”) issued by the Department of Commerce and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for “Models for a Governance Structure for the National Strategy for Trusted Identity in Cyberspace”. OIX has designed this response to set forth its vision for the process by which the Identity Ecosystem Framework and its component Trust Frameworks can best be developed; suggest an approach for the governance structure of the NSTIC Steering group; and invite the National Program Office charged with achieving the goals of the Strategy and the Steering Group it seeks to establish, to join with other stakeholders to avail themselves of OIX programs and tools to help to integrate the related “legal standards” setting processes.

Authors: Don Thibeau & Scott David